The multiplier effect is a major feature of networks and flows. It arises regardless of the particular nature of the resource, be it goods, money, or messages.
The measure of performance of any given agent is the amount of money it accumulates through its actions.
Model building is the art of selecting those aspects of a process that are relevant to the question being asked. As with any art, this selection is guided by taste, elegance, and metaphor; it is a matter of induction, rather than deduction. High science depends on this art.
The end point, a cas simulation with a realistic interface, is highly desirable, because it enables an ecologist, or economist, or politician to try out alternatives that could not possibly tried in real systems.
Even though these complex systems differ in detail, the question of coherence under change is the central enigma for each.
Doing science, particularly the synthesis of disparate ideas, is not as arcane as it is often made out to be. Discipline and taste play a vital role, but the activity is familiar to anyone who has made some effort to be creative.
This use of building blocks to generate internal models is a pervasive feature of complex adaptive systems.
The recycling of resource by the aggregate behavior of a diverse array of agents is much more than the sum of the individual actions.
There is more of a mystery to the origin of the pin factory that Adam Smith (1776) discusses in his Wealth of Nations than is generally realized.
Looking back to data, we can see if the consequences are plausible; looking forward to theory, we can see if general principles are suggested.
When a new building block is discovered, the result is usually a range of innovations.
If there is to be a competition, there must be some basis for resolving it. It is also clear that the competition should be experienced based.
Evolution continually innovates, but at each level it conserves the elements that are recombined to yield the innovations.
If we are to understand the interactions of a large number of agents, we must first be able to describe the capabilities of individual agents.