Management problems are not respecters of the company organization, nor of the talents of the people appointed to solve them.
The development of the Watt governor for steam engines, which adapted the power output of the engine automatically to the load by means of feedback, consolidated the first Industrial Revolution.
The problem with managing either a business or a prison by periodic rather than continuous inspection is that the variables are likely to be seriously out of control before the discrepancy is noted.
It is terribly important to appreciate that some things remain obscure to the bitter end.
There is, then, a logical priority about the arrangements, and logic has nothing to do with time.
Clearly, if it possible to have a self-regulating system that implicitly arranges its own stability, then this is of the keenest management interest.
The whole picture is complicated by the stockists and merchants who will try to exploit any shortages that may appear. The result is this. The feedback information from the industry's environment consists, first and foremost, of a forward order load. Much of this demand for steel will be bogus.
The aim of management science is to display the best course of action in a given set of circumstances, and this must include all the circumstances.
The system of transportation is not coherent; it is not treated as integral. Roads compete with with railroads and airlines in chaotic fashion, and at immense cost to the nation.
Certain management policies-stretching of credit resources, for example-may lead to great progress in good conditions; but, like the Grand Prix car in comparison with the Land Rover, they may not be robust enough to survive when the going gets tough.
Policy-making, decision-taking, and control: These are the three functions of management that have intellectual content.
A stochastic process is about the results of convolving probabilities-which is just what management is about, as well.
A slowly moving queue does not move uniformly. Rather, waves of motion pass down the queue. The frequency and amplitude of these waves is inversely related to the speed at which the queue is served.